Parkinson’s is a chronic progressive, debilitating movement disorder affecting the nervous system. It is caused mainly by the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra, a brain region that plays a crucial role in movement control. The loss of dopamine in this brain region leads to motor symptoms, including tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability.

Apart from motor symptoms, Parkinson’s disease can also cause various non-motor symptoms, including sleep disturbances, depression, anxiety, cognitive impairment, and autonomic dysfunction (such as constipation and urinary incontinence).

Parkinson’s disease usually affects people over 50 but can also occur in younger people. The cause of the disease is not entirely understood, but it is thought to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease is primarily based on clinical symptoms, but imaging tests such as MRI and dopamine transporter imaging can also support the diagnosis.

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive illness, and there is no cure. Still, treatments such as medication and deep brain stimulation (DBS) can help manage motor, sensory, autonomic and psychiatric symptoms and improve quality of life. Exercise, physical, and speech therapy can also help manage symptoms and improve mobility and communication.

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Doctor examining a patient with Parkinson's disease


Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease affects each person differently, but the most common symptoms include

  • Tremors: At the onset of the illness, tremors are usually mild and asymmetrical and involve a part of the body, generally beginning in one hand and gradually spreading to other body parts involving the entire body. The tremor is usually more noticeable at rest and can disappear or decrease during movement.
  • Rigidity: Stiffness of the limbs, neck, and trunk, making movement difficult and uncomfortable.
  • Bradykinesia: Slowness of movement, difficulty starting a movement, and reduced range of motion.
  • Postural instability: Impaired balance and coordination, leading to a tendency to fall.
  • Changes in speech: Speech may become soft or slurred, and there may be a loss of inflection.
  • Changes in handwriting: Handwriting may become smaller and more difficult to read.
  • Loss of smell: A decreased sense of smell is often an early symptom of Parkinson’s disease.
  • Constipation: Parkinson’s disease can cause bowel movements to become less frequent and more difficult.
  • Sleep disturbances: Many people with Parkinson’s disease have trouble sleeping, including difficulty falling asleep, waking up frequently, and acting out dreams.
  • Mood disorders: Depression and anxiety are common in Parkinson’s disease.

It is important to note that not all symptoms of Parkinson’s disease occur in every person, and the symptoms can vary in severity and progression.

What causes Parkinson’s disease?


Parkinson's disease


The exact cause and aetiology of Parkinson’s disease are poorly understood, but it occurs due to many factors, including genetic and environmental factors.

  • Genetic factors: Some rare forms of Parkinson’s disease are caused by mutations in specific genes, such as the SNCA, LRRK2, and PARK2 genes. These genes are involved in the production and clearance of the protein alpha-synuclein, which is thought to play a role in developing Parkinson’s disease.
  • Environmental factors: Exposure to certain chemicals, toxins, drugs such as pesticides and herbicides etc., has been associated with an overall increased risk of Parkinson’s disease. Other environmental factors related to an increased risk of Parkinson’s disease include head injuries, viral infections, and living in rural areas.

The development of Parkinson’s disease is caused by the gradual loss of dopaminergic (dopamine-producing) neurons in specific brain regions, especially basal ganglia. The death of dopaminergic neurons occurs due to genetic and environmental factors leading to the accumulation of specific abnormal proteins in the brain, including alpha-synuclein. The exact mechanism by which these proteins cause cell death is not fully understood. Still, it involves oxidative stress, inflammation, and impaired protein clearance mechanisms in the brain.

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Types of Parkinson’s disease

There are various types of Parkinson’s disease based on aetiology and presentations, including:

Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease is the most common type of Parkinson’s disease and has no known cause.

  1. Genetic Parkinson’s disease: Parkinson’s disease is a heritable condition caused by genetic mutation passed down through families. It accounts for only a tiny percentage of cases.
  2. Drug-induced Parkinsonism: Some medications, such as antipsychotics, can cause Parkinson’s-like symptoms.
  3. Parkinsonism-plus syndromes: These are a group of disorders that share some features of Parkinson’s disease, such as tremors and rigidity, but also have additional symptoms, such as dementia, atypical movements, or autonomic dysfunction. Examples of Parkinsonism-plus syndromes include Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP).
  4. Post-traumatic Parkinsonism: Post-traumatic Parkinsonism occur after a head injury or repeated concussions.
  5. Vascular Parkinsonism: Vascular Parkinsonism is caused by multiple small strokes that damage the brain’s blood vessels.

It is essential and crucial to understanding the difference between Parkinsonism and Parkinson’s disease. Not all cases of Parkinsonism are due to Parkinson’s disease, and a thorough evaluation by a neurologist is necessary to diagnose and differentiate Parkinson’s disease from other Parkinsonism-plus syndromes.

Treatments for Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects the various parts of the brain and nervous system and can cause a range of motor and non-motor symptoms. As there is currently no cure for Parkinson’s disease, several treatments are available to help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life. Some of the treatments for Parkinson’s disease include:

  • Medications: Medications are often the first line of treatment for Parkinson’s disease. Several medications can be used to manage symptoms, including dopamine agonists, levodopa, and MAO-B inhibitors.
  • Deep brain stimulation (DBS): DBS is a novel surgical procedure involving implanting electrodes to stimulate specific areas and improve motor symptoms.
  • Physical therapy: Physical therapy can help manage the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, such as tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with balance and coordination.
  • Occupational therapy: Occupational therapy may help individuals with Parkinson’s disease to develop strategies to manage daily activities, such as dressing, grooming, and eating.
  • Speech therapy: Speech therapy may help individuals with Parkinson’s disease to improve their speech and communication skills, which can be affected by the disease.
  • Exercise: Regular exercises, such as walking, swimming, and cycling, can help to improve muscle strength, balance, and flexibility, as well as reduce the risk of falls.
  • Complementary therapies: Complementary therapies, such as acupuncture, massage, and yoga, may also help manage the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, although more research is needed to determine their effectiveness.

It’s important to note that the specific treatment plan for Parkinson’s disease will depend on the individual’s symptoms and needs and may involve a combination of different therapies. It’s also important to work closely with a healthcare provider specializing in Parkinson’s disease to develop an effective treatment plan.

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Precautions for people living with Parkinson’s disease

People living with Parkinson’s disease can take certain precautions to help manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life. Some of these precautions include:

  • Medication management: It is essential to take medications as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to track when and how much medicine is taken.
  • Exercise: Regular exercise can help to improve strength, flexibility, and balance, as well as reduce the risk of falls.
  • Healthy diet: A healthy, nutritious and well-balanced diet can help maintain overall health and well-being and may also help manage some symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
  • Safety precautions: Taking safety precautions such as installing grab bars in the bathroom, removing tripping hazards, and wearing proper footwear can help to reduce the risk of falls and injuries.
  • Adequate sleep: Getting enough sleep is vital for overall health and can help to manage symptoms such as fatigue and daytime sleepiness.
  • Mental health: Managing stress, anxiety, and depression can be essential for overall well-being and may help manage some symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
  • Regular medical check-ups: Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help to monitor symptoms and adjust treatment plans as needed.

A support system, including family, friends, and healthcare providers, is also essential to help manage the challenges of living with Parkinson’s disease.


Parkinson’s disease is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting millions worldwide. It is characterized by motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia, as well as non-motor symptoms such as anxiety, depression, and biological and cognitive impairment. Despite not having any cure for Parkinson’s disease, several treatments are available that can help manage its symptoms and improve quality of life.

Managing Parkinson’s disease requires a multidisciplinary approach that involves medication management, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, exercise, and lifestyle modifications. People living with Parkinson’s disease can also take certain precautions to help manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life. 

Despite the challenges of living with Parkinson’s disease, many people can continue to live active and fulfilling lives with the help of their healthcare providers, support system, and a positive attitude. Ongoing research into the causes and treatments of Parkinson’s disease offers hope for better treatments and, ultimately, a cure.

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