Insomnia is a common and prevalent sleep disorder affecting millions globally, and it is characterized by difficulty falling and staying asleep or waking up too early. Insomnia can be acute or chronic, significantly impacting a person’s overall health and well-being.

Acute insomnia is typically short-term and may be caused by stress, jet lag, or other environmental factors. On the other hand, chronic insomnia is usually a long-term problem that various factors, including depression, anxiety, chronic pain, or medical conditions such as sleep apnea, can cause.

The symptoms of insomnia can vary significantly from person to person. They may include difficulty falling asleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, fragmentation of sleep, waking up frequently during the night, early morning awakening or waking up too early, feeling tired or not rested after waking up in the morning, and daytime sleepiness or fatigue. Insomnia can also lead to mood disturbances, such as anxiety or depression, and impair a person’s ability to function at work or in other areas.

Treatment for insomnia often involves lifestyle changes, such as improving sleep hygiene, avoiding caffeine or alcohol before bedtime, and reducing stress. Medication or other therapies may sometimes be necessary to help manage insomnia symptoms. It is essential to seek treatment for insomnia, as untreated insomnia can seriously impact physical and mental health.


Girl trying to sleep

What is insomnia?

Insomnia is a sleep disorder characterized by a range of symptoms, including insufficient sleep, poor sleep quality, difficulty falling or staying asleep, and waking up too early. While insomnia may be a minor inconvenience for some, it can significantly disrupt the lives of others. The causes of insomnia are varied and not yet fully understood by experts.

Sleep is essential for the body for many reasons, though the exact mechanisms of this relationship are still being studied. Lack of sleep can lead to sleep deprivation, which can have unpleasant effects and impair an individual’s overall functioning.

Types of insomnia

Insomnia is a sleep disorder often characterized by difficulty falling or staying asleep. There are several types of insomnia, including:

  • Acute insomnia: Also known as short-term insomnia, this type lasts for a few nights to a few weeks and is often caused by stress, jet lag, or changes in sleep habits.
  • Chronic insomnia: Chronic insomnia is diagnosed when sleep disturbances last at least three nights a week for three months or more. Various factors, including medical conditions, mental health disorders, and medications, can cause it.
  • Onset insomnia: Onset insomnia refers to difficulty falling asleep at the beginning of the night.
  • Maintenance insomnia: Maintenance insomnia refers to difficulty staying asleep throughout the night.
  • Early morning awakening insomnia: This type of insomnia is characterized by frequently waking up too early in the morning, having a regular awakening schedule and being unable to fall back asleep.
  • Sleep onset association disorder: This type of insomnia occurs when a person has developed an association between their sleep and specific environmental or behavioural cues, such as needing to watch TV in bed to fall asleep.
  • Idiopathic insomnia: Idiopathic insomnia is a rare type not caused by any underlying medical or psychological condition but appears to result from a person’s individual sleep patterns and biology.

It is important to note that insomnia can be a symptom of an underlying mental, physical or medical health condition, so it is always a good idea to discuss any sleep problems with a healthcare professional.

How common is insomnia?

Insomnia is a prevalent sleep disorder; around 30-40 per cent of the population suffer from insomnia. It affects approximately 10% of the adult population and affects people of all ages, genders, and backgrounds who have insomnia at some point. It is more common in specific populations, including women, older adults, people with certain medical or mental health conditions, and individuals who work night shifts or have irregular sleep schedules. Stress, anxiety, and poor sleep hygiene can also increase the risk of developing insomnia.

While occasional insomnia is common and often resolves independently, it is usually chronic. Chronic insomnia can significantly impact a person’s physical and mental health and quality of life. It is essential to seek medical attention if insomnia affects your daily life and functioning.

Symptoms of insomnia

Insomnia is a sleep disorder that can have a range of symptoms. Some common symptoms of insomnia include:

  1. Difficulty falling asleep: People with insomnia may have difficulty falling asleep, even when tired.
  2. Difficulty staying asleep: Insomnia can cause people to wake up frequently at night and have difficulty getting back to sleep.
  3. Waking up too early: Insomnia can cause people to wake up too early in the morning and be unable to fall back asleep.
  4. Non-restorative sleep: Even if a person with insomnia manages to sleep for an entire night, they may wake up feeling tired and unrefreshed.
  5. Daytime fatigue and sleepiness: Insomnia can cause daytime fatigue, drowsiness, tiredness and difficulty concentrating, impacting work or school performance.
  6. Mood changes: Insomnia can lead to irritability, mood swings, anxiety, and depression.
  7. Poor performance at work or school: Insomnia can impact cognitive function and performance, leading to difficulties at work or school.

It is crucial to note that these symptoms can also be caused by various other factors, such as medical or mental health conditions, so discussing any sleep problems with a healthcare professional is always a good idea.

Causes of insomnia

Insomnia can be caused by a wide range of factors, including:

  • Stress and anxiety : High anxiety and stress levels can disturb sleep and make it difficult to fall or stay asleep.
  • Poor sleep habits : Irregular sleep schedules, napping during the day, or using electronic devices before bed can disrupt sleep patterns.
  • Medical conditions : Certain conditions, such as chronic pain, asthma, heartburn, or restless leg syndrome, can make sleeping difficult.
  • Mental health conditions : Insomnia is often a symptom of mental health conditions such as anxiety, depression, OCD, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) etc.
  • Medications : Some medications, such as those for asthma, allergies, and depression, can interfere with sleep.
  • Environmental factors : Noise, light, and temperature can all impact sleep quality.
  • Substance use : Alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine can interfere with sleep.
  • Shift work : Working at night or on irregular schedules can disrupt sleep patterns.
  • Aging: People may experience changes in their sleep patterns that make falling and staying asleep harder.

Identifying the underlying cause of insomnia is necessary to determine the most effective treatment. A healthcare professional can help diagnose the cause of insomnia and provide guidance on appropriate treatment options.

What are the complications of insomnia?

Insomnia can have a range of complications that can impact a person’s physical and mental health and quality of life. Some complications of insomnia include:

  1. Daytime fatigue and sleepiness : Insomnia can cause daytime fatigue, tiredness and sleepiness, impacting work or school performance.
  2. Impaired cognitive function : Insomnia can impact cognitive function, including memory, attention, and decision-making.
  3. Mood disorders : Insomnia can increase the risk of developing mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety.
  4. Increased risk of accidents : Sleep deprivation can impair reaction time, attention, and coordination, increasing the risk of accidents while driving or operating machinery.
  5. Increased risk of medical conditions : Chronic insomnia increases the risk of diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and stroke.
  6. Decreased quality of life : Insomnia can impact a person’s quality of life by causing difficulties in work, relationships, and daily functioning.
  7. Substance abuse : Some people with insomnia may turn to drugs or alcohol to help them sleep, which can lead to substance abuse or addiction.

It is important and necessary to seek medical attention if insomnia affects your daily life and functioning, as effective treatment can help reduce the risk of complications.


Insomnia is a commonly prevalent sleep disorder that affects a large portion of the population at some point in their lives. Signs and symptoms of insomnia are characterized by difficulty falling asleep after bed, staying asleep, or waking up too early. Insomnia can significantly impact a person’s quality of life, causing daytime fatigue, irritability, and difficulty concentrating.

Several potential causes of insomnia include stress, anxiety, depression, chronic pain, and certain medications. Treatment options for insomnia include lifestyle changes, such as establishing a regular sleep routine, avoiding caffeine and alcohol before bed, and reducing exposure to electronic devices in the evening. Additionally, medications and therapy may help manage insomnia.

If you are experiencing insomnia, you must talk to your healthcare provider to determine the underlying cause and develop a personalized treatment plan. With the right strategies and support, most people with insomnia can improve their sleep and overall well-being.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Fill out this field
Fill out this field
Please enter a valid email address.
You need to agree with the terms to proceed